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|Abstract:||In social hierarchies, dominant individuals experience reproductive and health benefits, but the costs of social dominance remain a topic of debate. Prevailing hypotheses predict that higher-ranking males experience higher testosterone and glucocorticoid (stress hormone) levels than lower-ranking males when hierarchies are unstable but not otherwise. In this long-term study of rank-related stress in a natural population of savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus), high-ranking males had higher testosterone and lower glucocorticoid levels than other males, regardless of hierarchy stability. The singular exception was the highest-ranking (alpha) males, who exhibited both high testosterone and high glucocorticoid levels. In particular, alpha males exhibited much higher stress hormone levels than second-ranking (beta) males, suggesting that being at the very top may be more costly than previously thought.|
|Electronic Publication Date:||14-Jul-2011|
|Citation:||Gesquiere, Laurence R., Learn, Niki H., Simao, M. Carolina M., Onyango, Patrick O., Alberts, Susan C., Altmann, Jeanne. (2011). Life at the Top: Rank and Stress in Wild Male Baboons. Science, 333 (6040), 357 - 360. doi:10.1126/science.1207120|
|Pages:||357 - 360|
|Type of Material:||Journal Article|
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