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Vertical Stacked LEGO-PoL CPU Voltage Regulator

Author(s): Baek, Jaeil; Elasser, Youssef; Radhakrishnan, Kaladhar; Gan, Houle; Douglas, Jonathan P; et al

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Abstract: This article presents a 48–1 V merged-two-stage hybrid-switched-capacitor converter with a linear extendable group operated point-of-load (LEGO-PoL) architecture for ultrahigh-current microprocessors, featuring 3-D stacked packaging and coupled inductors for miniaturized size, fast speed, and vertical power delivery. The architecture is highly modular and scalable. The switched-capacitor circuits are connected in series on the input side to split the high input voltage into multiple stacked voltage domains. The multiphase buck circuits are connected in parallel to distribute the high output current into multiple parallel current paths. It leverages the advantages of switched-capacitor circuits and multiphase buck circuits to achieve soft charging, current sharing, and voltage balancing. The inductors of the multiphase buck converters are used as current sources to soft-charge and soft-switch the switched-capacitor circuits, and the switched-capacitor circuits are utilized to ensure current sharing among the multiphase buck circuits. A 780-A vertical stacked CPU voltage regulator with a peak efficiency of 91.1% and a full load efficiency of 79.2% at an output voltage of 1 V with liquid cooling is built and tested. The switched capacitor circuits operate at 286 kHz and the buck circuits operate at 1 MHz. It regulates output voltage between 0.8 and 1.5 V through the entire 780-A current range. This is the first demonstration of a 48–1 V CPU voltage regulator to achieve over 1-A/mm2 current density and the first to achieve 1000-W/in3 power density.
Publication Date: 18-Feb-2022
Citation: Baek, Jaeil, Elasser, Youssef, Radhakrishnan, Kaladhar, Gan, Houle, Douglas, Jonathan P, Krishnamurthy, Harish K, Li, Xin, Jiang, Shuai, Sullivan, Charles R, Chen, Minjie. (2022). Vertical Stacked LEGO-PoL CPU Voltage Regulator. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 37 (6), 6305 - 6322. doi:10.1109/tpel.2021.3135386
DOI: doi:10.1109/TPEL.2021.3135386
ISSN: 0885-8993
EISSN: 1941-0107
Pages: 6305-6322
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Version: Final published version. This is an open access article.

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