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Molecular Recognition of CCR5 by an HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop

Author(s): Tamamis, Phanourios; Floudas, Christodoulos A

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Abstract: The binding of protein HIV-1 gp120 to coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4 is a key step of the HIV-1 entry to the host cell, and is predominantly mediated through the V3 loop fragment of HIV-1 gp120. In the present work, we delineate the molecular recognition of chemokine receptor CCR5 by a dual tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop, using a comprehensive set of computational tools predominantly based on molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. We report, what is to our knowledge, the first complete HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop : CCR5 complex structure, which includes the whole V3 loop and the N-terminus of CCR5, and exhibits exceptional agreement with previous experimental findings. The computationally derived structure sheds light into the functional role of HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop and CCR5 residues associated with the HIV-1 coreceptor activity, and provides insights into the HIV-1 coreceptor selectivity and the blocking mechanism of HIV-1 gp120 by maraviroc. By comparing the binding of the specific dual tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop with CCR5 and CXCR4, we observe that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop residues 13–21, which include the tip, share nearly identical structural and energetic properties in complex with both coreceptors. This result paves the way for the design of dual CCR5/CXCR4 targeted peptides as novel potential anti-AIDS therapeutics.
Publication Date: 24-Apr-2014
Citation: Tamamis, Phanourios, and Christodoulos A. Floudas. "Molecular Recognition of CCR5 by an HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop." PloS ONE 9, no. 4 (2014): e95767. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095767
DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095767
EISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e95767
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: PLoS ONE
Version: Final published version. This is an open access article.

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