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Femtotesla Nearly-Quantum-Noise-Limited Pulsed Gradiometer at Earth-Scale Fields

Author(s): Lucivero, VG; Lee, William W.; Limes, ME; Foley, EL; Kornack, TW; et al

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Abstract: We describe a magnetic gradiometer that operates at finite fields and uses an intense pulsed laser to polarize a 87Rb atomic ensemble and a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser probe laser to detect paramagnetic Faraday rotation in a single multipass cell. We report differential magnetic sensitivity of 14 fT/Hz1/2, corresponding to gradiometer sensitivity of 70 fT/cm/√Hz with a 0.2 cm baseline, over a broad dynamic range, including Earth’s field magnitude and a common-mode rejection ratio higher than 104. We also observe a nearly quantum-noise-limited behavior of the gradiometer by comparing the experimental standard deviation of the estimated frequency difference against the Cramér-Rao lower bound in the presence of white photon shot-noise, atomic spin noise, and diffusion.
Publication Date: 12-Aug-2022
DOI: doi:10.1103/physrevapplied.18.l021001
EISSN: 2331-7019
Language: en
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: Physical Review Applied
Version: Author's manuscript

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