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The Siderophore Metabolome of Azotobacter vinelandii

Author(s): Baars, Oliver; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Morel, François M.M.; Zhang, Xinning; Baars, Oliver; et al

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Abstract: In this study, we performed a detailed characterization of the siderophore metabolome, or “chelome,” of the agriculturally important and widely studied model organism Azotobacter vinelandii. Using a new high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, we found over 35 metal-binding secondary metabolites, indicative of a vast chelome in A. vinelandii. These include vibrioferrin, a siderophore previously observed only in marine bacteria. Quantitative analyses of siderophore production during diazotrophic growth with different sources and availabilities of Fe showed that, under all tested conditions, vibrioferrin was present at the highest concentration of all siderophores and suggested new roles for vibrioferrin in the soil environment. Bioinformatic searches confirmed the capacity for vibrioferrin production in Azotobacter spp. and other bacteria spanning multiple phyla, habitats, and lifestyles. Moreover, our studies revealed a large number of previously unreported derivatives of all known A. vinelandii siderophores and rationalized their origins based on genomic analyses, with implications for siderophore diversity and evolution. Together, these insights provide clues as to why A. vinelandii harbors multiple siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters. Coupled with the growing evidence for alternative functions of siderophores, the vast chelome in A. vinelandii may be explained by multiple, disparate evolutionary pressures that act on siderophore production.
Publication Date: 1-Jan-2016
Electronic Publication Date: 9-Oct-2015
Citation: Baars, Oliver, Zhang, Xinning, Morel, François MM, Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R. (2016). The Siderophore Metabolome of Azotobacter vinelandii. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82 (1), 27 - 39. doi:10.1128/AEM.03160-15
DOI: doi:10.1128/AEM.03160-15
ISSN: 0099-2240
EISSN: 1098-5336
Pages: 82:1, 27 - 39
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Version: Final published version. Article is made available in OAR by the publisher's permission or policy.

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