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Recovery of the Candidate Protoplanet HD 100546 b with Gemini/NICI and Detection of Additional (Planet-induced?) Disk Structure at Small Separations

Author(s): Currie, Thayne; Muto, Takayuki; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D; et al

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Abstract: We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L′high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, were cover “HD 100546 b” with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to≈12–13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.′′3. Standard hot-start model simply a mass of≈15MJ. However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk,both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1–7MJ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 bbut 90◦away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to≈0.′′45 embedded within the visible disk structure:plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.
Publication Date: Dec-2014
Electronic Publication Date: 19-Nov-2014
Citation: Currie, Thayne, Muto, Takayuki, Kudo, Tomoyuki, Honda, Mitsuhiko, Brandt, Timothy D, Grady, Carol, Fukagawa, Misato, Burrows, Adam, Janson, Markus, Kuzuhara, Masayuki, McElwain, Michael W, Follette, Katherine, Hashimoto, Jun, Henning, Thomas, Kandori, Ryo, Kusakabe, Nobuhiko, Kwon, Jungmi, Mede, Kyle, Morino, Jun-ichi, Nishikawa, Jun, Pyo, Tae-Soo, Serabyn, Gene, Suenaga, Takuya, Takahashi, Yasuhiro, Wisniewski, John, Tamura, Motohide. (2014). Recovery of the Candidate Protoplanet HD 100546 b with Gemini/NICI and Detection of Additional (Planet-induced?) Disk Structure at Small Separations. \apj, 796 (L30 - L30. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/796/2/L30
DOI: doi:10.1088/2041-8205/796/2/L30
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: Astrophysical Journal
Version: Final published version. This is an open access article.

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