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|Abstract:||We present the first systematic investigation of the existence, spatial distribution, and kinematics of warm ionized gas as traced by the [O II] 3727 angstrom emission line in 74 of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. All of our galaxies have deep integral-field spectroscopy from the volume-and magnitude-limited MASSIVE survey of earlytype galaxies with stellar mass log(M*M circle dot)> 11.5 (M-K. <. -25.3 mag) and distance D. <. 108 Mpc. Of the 74 galaxies in our sample, we detect warm ionized gas in 28, which yields a global detection fraction of 38 +/- 6% down to a typical [O II] equivalent width limit of 2 angstrom. MASSIVE fast rotators are more likely to have gas than MASSIVE slow rotators with detection fractions of 80 +/- 10% and 28 +/- 6%, respectively. The spatial extents span a wide range of radii (0.6-18.2 kpc; 0.1-4R(e)), and the gas morphologies are diverse, with 17/28 approximate to 61 +/- 9% being centrally concentrated, 8/28 approximate to 29 +/- 9% exhibiting clear rotation out to several kiloparsecs, and 3/28 approximate to 11 +/- 6% being extended but patchy. Three out of four fast rotators show kinematic alignment between the stars and gas, whereas the two slow rotators with robust kinematic measurements available exhibit kinematic misalignment. Our inferred warm ionized gas masses are roughly similar to 10(5)M(circle dot). The emission line ratios and radial equivalent width profiles are generally consistent with excitation of the gas by the old underlying stellar population. We explore different gas origin scenarios for MASSIVE galaxies and find that a variety of physical processes are likely at play, including internal gas recycling, cooling out of the hot gaseous halo, and gas acquired via mergers.|
|Electronic Publication Date:||1-Mar-2017|
|Citation:||Pandya, Viraj, Greene, Jenny E, Ma, Chung-Pei, Veale, Melanie, Ene, Irina, Davis, Timothy A, Blakeslee, John P, Goulding, Andy D, McConnell, Nicholas J, Nyland, Kristina, Thomas, Jens. (2017). The MASSIVE Survey. VI. The Spatial Distribution and Kinematics of Warm Ionized Gas in the Most Massive Local Early-type Galaxies. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 837 (10.3847/1538-4357/aa5ebc|
|Type of Material:||Journal Article|
|Journal/Proceeding Title:||ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL|
|Version:||Final published version. Article is made available in OAR by the publisher's permission or policy.|
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