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KOI-142, The King of Transit Variations, is a Pair of Planets near the 2:1 Resonance

Author(s): Nesvorný, David; Kipping, David; Terrell, Dirk; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gaspar Aron; et al

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Abstract: The transit timing variations (TTVs) can be used as a diagnostic of gravitational interactions between planets in a multi-planet system. Many Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) exhibit significant TTVs, but KOI-142.01 stands out among them with an unrivaled 12 hr TTV amplitude. Here we report a thorough analysis of KOI-142.01’s transits. We discover periodic transit duration variations (TDVs) of KOI-142.01 that are nearly in phase with the observed TTVs. We show that KOI-142.01’s TTVs and TDVs uniquely detect a non-transiting companion with a mass 0.63 that of Jupiter (KOI-142c). KOI-142.01’s mass inferred from the transit variations is consistent with the measured transit depth, suggesting a Neptune-class planet (KOI-142b). The orbital period ratio P c /P b = 2 . 03 indicates that the two planets are just wide of the 2:1 resonance. The present dynamics of this system, characterized here in detail, can be used to test various formation theories that have been proposed to explain the near-resonant pairs of exoplanets.
Publication Date: 1-Nov-2013
Electronic Publication Date: 8-Oct-2013
Citation: Nesvorný, David, Kipping, David, Terrell, Dirk, Hartman, Joel, Bakos, Gáspár Á, Buchhave, Lars A. (2013). KOI-142, The King of Transit Variations, is a Pair of Planets near the 2:1 Resonance. \apj, 777 (3 - 3. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/3
DOI: doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/3
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: Astrophysical Journal
Version: Final published version. This is an open access article.

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