Skip to main content


Author(s): Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C

To refer to this page use:
Abstract: Supernova (SN) explosions deposit prodigious energy and momentum in their environments, with the former regulating multiphase thermal structure and the latter regulating turbulence and star formation rates in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, systematic studies quantifying the impact of SNe in realistic inhomogeneous ISM conditions have been lacking. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the dependence of radial momentum injection on both physical conditions (considering a range of mean density n(0) = 0.1-100 cm(-3)) and numerical parameters. Our inhomogeneous simulations adopt two-phase background states that result from thermal instability in atomic gas. Although the supernova remnant (SNR) morphology becomes highly complex for inhomogeneous backgrounds, the radial momentum injection is remarkably insensitive to environmental details. For our two-phase simulations, the final momentum produced by a single SN is given by 2.8 x 10(5)M(circle dot) km s(-1) n(0)(-0.17). This is only 5% less than the momentum injection for a homogeneous environment with the same mean density, and only 30% greater than the momentum at the time of shell formation. The maximum mass in hot gas is also quite insensitive to environmental inhomogeneity. Strong magnetic fields alter the hot gas mass at very late times, but the momentum injection remains the same. Initial experiments with multiple spatially correlated SNe show a momentum per event nearly as large as single-SN cases. We also present a full numerical parameter study to assess convergence requirements. For convergence in the momentum and other quantities, we find that the numerical resolution Delta and the initial size of the SNR r(init) must satisfy Delta, r(init) < r(sf)/3, where the shell formation radius is given by r(sf) = 30 pc n(0)(-0.46) for two-phase models (or 30% smaller for a homogeneous medium).
Publication Date: 1-Apr-2015
Electronic Publication Date: 30-Mar-2015
Citation: Kim, Chang-Goo, Ostriker, Eve C. (2015). MOMENTUM INJECTION BY SUPERNOVAE IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 802 (10.1088/0004-637X/802/2/99
DOI: doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/2/99
ISSN: 0004-637X
EISSN: 1538-4357
Related Item:
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
Version: Final published version. Article is made available in OAR by the publisher's permission or policy.

Items in OAR@Princeton are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.