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Mitigation of plasma-wall interactions with low-Z powders in DIII-D high confinement plasmas

Author(s): Effenberg, Florian; Bortolon, Alessandro; Casali, L.; Nazikian, R.; Bykov, F.; et al

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Abstract: Experiments with low-Z powder injection in DIII-D high confinement discharges demonstrated increased divertor dissipation and detachment while maintaining good core energy confinement. Lithium (Li), boron (B), and boron nitride (BN) powders were injected in H-mode plasmas (Ip =1 MA, Bt =2 T, PNB =6 MW, ⟨ne⟩ = 3.6 − 5.0 · 1019 m−3) into the upper small-angle slot (SAS) divertor for 2-s intervals at constant rates of 3-204 mg/s. The multi-species BN powders at a rate of 54 mg/s showed the most substantial increase in divertor neutral compression by more than an order of magnitude and lasting detachment with minor degradation of the stored magnetic energy Wmhd by 5%. Rates of 204 mg/s of boron nitride powder further reduce ELM-fluxes on the divertor but also cause a drop in confinement performance by 24% due to the onset of an n = 2 tearing mode. The application of powders also showed a substantial improvement of wall conditions manifesting in reduced wall fueling source and intrinsic carbon and oxygen content in response to the cumulative injection of non-recycling materials. The results suggest that low-Z powder injection, including mixed element compounds, is a promising new core-edge compatible technique that simultaneously enables divertor detachment and improves wall conditions during high confinement operation.
Publication Date: 31-Aug-2022
Citation: F. Effenberg et al 2022 Nucl. Fusion 62 106015
Keywords: divertor power exhaust, dust injection, wall conditioning, detachment, powder injection, impurity seeding, core-edge integration
Type of Material: Journal Article
Series/Report no.: 62;106015
Journal/Proceeding Title: Nuclear Fusion
Version: Author's manuscript

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