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Resolving the HD 100546 Protoplanetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager: Evidence for Multiple Forming, Accreting Planets

Author(s): Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol; Burrows, Adam S; et al

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Abstract: We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of theHD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared(IR)bright(super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak atrproj∼14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a<10–20MJcandidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spira larm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk.
Publication Date: Dec-2015
Electronic Publication Date: 25-Nov-2015
Citation: Currie, Thayne, Cloutier, Ryan, Brittain, Sean, Grady, Carol, Burrows, Adam, Muto, Takayuki, Kenyon, Scott J, Kuchner, Marc J. (2015). Resolving the HD 100546 Protoplanetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager: Evidence for Multiple Forming, Accreting Planets. \apj, 814 (L27 - L27. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/814/2/L27
DOI: doi:10.1088/2041-8205/814/2/L27
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: Astrophysical Journal Letters
Version: Author's manuscript

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