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Inexpensive Multipatient Respiratory Monitoring System for Helmet Ventilation During COVID-19 Pandemic

Author(s): Bourrianne, Philippe; Chidzik, Stanley; J. Cohen, Daniel; Elmer, Peter; Hallowell, Thomas; et al

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Abstract: Helmet continuous positive applied pressure is a form of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) that has been used to provide respiratory support to COVID-19 patients. Helmet NIV is low-cost, readily available, provides viral filters between the patient and clinician, and may reduce the need for invasive ventilation. Its widespread adoption has been limited, however, by the lack of a respiratory monitoring system needed to address known safety vulnerabilities and to monitor patients. To address these safety and clinical needs, we developed an inexpensive respiratory monitoring system based on readily available components suitable for local manufacture. Open-source design and manufacturing documents are provided. The monitoring system comprises flow, pressure, and CO2 sensors on the expiratory path of the helmet circuit and a central remote station to monitor up to 20 patients. The system is validated in bench tests, in human-subject tests on healthy volunteers, and in experiments that compare respiratory features obtained at the expiratory path to simultaneous ground-truth measurements from proximal sensors. Measurements of flow and pressure at the expiratory path are shown to deviate at high flow rates, and the tidal volumes reported via the expiratory path are systematically underestimated. Helmet monitoring systems exhibit high-flow rate, nonlinear effects from flow and helmet dynamics. These deviations are found to be within a reasonable margin and should, in principle, allow for calibration, correction, and deployment of clinically accurate derived quantities.
Publication Date: 3-Feb-2022
Electronic Publication Date: 3-Feb-2022
Citation: Bourrianne, Philippe, Chidzik, Stanley, J. Cohen, Daniel, Elmer, Peter, Hallowell, Thomas, Kilbaugh, Todd J, Lange, David, Leifer, Andrew M, Marlow, Daniel R, Meyers, Peter D, Normand, Edna, Nunes, Janine, Oh, Myungchul, Page, Lyman, Periera, Talmo, Pivarski, Jim, Schreiner, Henry, Stone, Howard A, Tank, David W, Thiberge, Stephan, Tully, Christopher. (2022). Inexpensive Multipatient Respiratory Monitoring System for Helmet Ventilation During COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Medical Devices, 16 (1), 10.1115/1.4053386
DOI: doi:10.1115/1.4053386
ISSN: 1932-6181
EISSN: 1932-619X
Language: en
Type of Material: Journal Article
Journal/Proceeding Title: Journal of Medical Devices
Version: Final published version. This is an open access article.

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